Koy Sanjaq (KS): The language of the Jews away from Koy Sanjaq, resident because about 1951 during the Israel

Koy Sanjaq (KS): The language of the Jews away from Koy Sanjaq, resident because about 1951 during the Israel

Guidance arises from Robert Hoberman (private communications). This seems to be generally representative of your Jewish languages out-of a number of other locations associated with region as well, including Aqra and Rawanduz.

However, in this dialect there can be a highly strange alter of h in order to h in the 3rd person only 1 possessive suffixes: resIh ‘his head’

Azerbaijan (Azer): The language of your Jews out of Iranian Azerbaijan, along with communities during the Urmi, Salmas, Basqale, Mahabad, and you will Yuksekova. Data is out of Garbell (1965).

Halabja (Hala): The language of the Jews of Halabja with the Iran-Iraq border. This is very near the Jewish dialects of your own most other locations of your own area, including Saqqiz, Suleimaniya, Sanandaj, Baneh, and you may Panjwin. Recommendations comes from my cards.

We’re going to evaluate such dialects with regard to twenty-five phonological, morphological, morpho-lexical, and lexical conditions. Adopting the Hetzron (1976, 98), i’ve chosen only innovations as the standards to have classification. I have selected an effective disproportionate quantity of morphological requirements, therefore will let them have unique pounds, once again after the Hetzron, however, other shared innovations would-be thought to be really.

Notice also the more challenging preservation plus insertion away from inside the Koy Sanjaq claimed from the Hoberman (1985)

As we contrast the newest dialects out-of NENA we are going to you will need to dictate the latest the quantity to which this new dialects display a distinct trend and therefore differs from Turoyo and Mandaic. At the same time, we are going to pick bundles out-of isoglosses inside NENA.

(1) Stress tends to be penultimate in most brand new NA languages, also Turoyo and you may Mandaic although not from the around three easternmost Jewish languages, Jewish Azerbaijani, Koy Sanjaq, and you will Halabja, which will fret the very last syllable. Such languages search, similar to this, as with even more (Garbell 1965), to show an abnormally strong influence regarding Kurdish.

(2) Most of the NENA languages have combined h and you may x. During the Hertevin the result is h, and everywhere more it’s x: Hertevin haye ‘life’ (Jastrow 1988, 189) and you will dmehli ‘I slept’ (Jastrow 1988, 18), Tkhuma xa:[Theta]a good ‘new’, Jilu ptIxli ‘I opened’ (Fox 1992, 45), and you will +damxotu ‘you sleep’ (Fox incontro cupido thai 1992, 55).(4)

One another Turoyo and you will Mandaic keep independent h and x. Specific NENA dialects has reintroduced h just like the a credit from Kurdish or Arabic otherwise of Ancient Syriac otherwise Hebrew.(5) Although not, the latest passed down words constantly suggests x. Eg, inside the Tisqopa you’ll find lent Arabic terms, such as for example sahabi ‘friend’, which have h, however, inherited terms and conditions for example laxma ‘bread’ constantly reveal x. (6)

(3) The NENA dialects but Hertevin and Zakho have lost most era off inherited. Such as for example, during the Aradhin we discover arba ‘four’, upra ‘earth’ corresponding to Syriac arb a beneficial and you will afra. Inside Hertevin plus in Zakho, passed down is actually regularly ?: Hertevin therefore?an excellent ‘seven’ (Jastrow 1988, 99), Zakho sme?la ‘she heard’ (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 189). In many other languages most are managed given that ?, and you will, on the people, is fully gone totally. Certain dialects possess reintroduced borrowed out-of Arabic otherwise Kurdish. Particularly, Halabja has ayza ‘good’.

(4) During the before languages away from Aramaic, like in Tiberian Hebrew, t turned into [Theta] immediately following a beneficial vowel. This alternation has been lexicalized into the NENA, which have either t or [Theta] spread courtesy whole paradigms, if preceded of the a great vowel or not. Like, during the Aradhin the newest verb ‘come’ is now offering [Theta] throughout: a[Theta]ya ‘it (fem.) comes’, plus [Theta]e:la ‘she came’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70, 74). After that, in some dialects the fresh new phoneme [Theta] possess undergone additional changes. In some dialects [Theta] provides blended back again to t, plus others it is s if not l.(7) In one single dialect, Jilu, it is h after which come erased but at start of a keyword. The three easternmost Jewish dialects express the stunning change away from [Theta] to a single. The outcomes ones changes is visible on the phrase ‘house’ hence appears in different dialects while the end up being:[Thetan effective]good (Tkhuma), biya (Jilu), beta (Hertevin), bela (Halabja), and you will besa (Sanandaj Religious).